Hygiene and Sanitation

Water Sanitaton Assets

Available fresh water is the life-blood of every liveable place on earth, whether it is an oasis or an island; where there is no useable water, there are no inhabitants. Our country is blessed with abundant ground water, but without proper management at all levels, this precious resource becomes the worst kind of poison.

Maintaining the water supply is a major concern for all countries, but particularly for one as densely populated as India. A catastrophic situation would ensue if enough people were denied drinkable water, even for a few days. The best way to share the responsibility of managing our water supply is to place the onus on those who benefit from it. By seeking contributions from those who use the water systems and by placing the duty of operation, upkeep and maintenance in their hands, people come to appreciate these assets. Instilling a sense of ownership brings a sense of responsibility and a feeling of satisfaction and self-worth. Everybody wins.

Ganga has initiated Neer Nirmal Pariyojana under Uttar Pradesh Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Scheme supported by World Bank through the State Project Management Unit and implemented by UP Government at Ghazipur District.

Fifteen Gram Panchayats have been chosen to receive the pipe water supply and individual household toilet construction:
Bayepur, Bhatauli, Devkali, Husainpur, Jaitpura Gangbarar, Fulwari Khurd, Meerpur Tirwaha, Vishunpura, Siyawa, Holipur, Bahuta, Charipur, Nari Pachdevara, Suaapur and Chochakpur

WASHThe long term goal of this project is the establishment of a consistent fresh water supply for rural villages and the creation of certified Open Defecation Free (ODf) areas. The operation and maintenance of these facilities is the responsibility of the Gram Panchayats (GP) who are equipped and trained to do so. Raising of funds for expenses is also supervised and monitored for best practices.

Sensitizing the community regarding the supply, use and maintenance of safe drinking water and sanitation services, is the objective of the Ganga team. Ganga’s task is to equip, motivate and mobilize a multidisciplinary team of suitable personnel having all necessary experience and qualifications. Every effort has been made to maintain close communication with all stakeholders during the project. Their input is regarded at every stage.

The Gram Panchayat (GPWSC) is an effective and accountable entity for the proper care of resources and collection of funds. Bank accounts were opened, and committee meetings are held monthly.

WASH Wall writings adorn each GP for public education. Short and simple slogans that are easily remembered with attractive designs that are relevant to the audience and create a sense of agreement with the messages are used. The messages have motifs of unity, responsibility and co-operation; all with the underlying theme of environmental and personal health and cleanliness, and conserving our water resources and asset for future generations.

The power of peer pressure should never be underestimated. The mere presence of an idea on the lips and in the minds of a group of people is a powerful catalyst for change. In keeping with this logic, two women’s meetings are held per week. Cleanliness drives conducted in schools and other institutions, and are projected and encouraged in a way that they may be taken up by community members and organizations at their own volition in the future.

Monthly Prabhat Pheries with school children are arranged, these cover the whole GP. Students are made aware of the issues surrounding sanitation and water management and encouraged to act as advocates for best water conservation, health and hygiene practices in their families. Hand washing demonstrations in schools to drive home the message of defeating the microscopic menace.

Maintaining community involvement and identification with the project is a focal point for the Ganga team. To strengthen the identification by the community with the project and its facilitators, the team stays in the GP / habitations during the project. To ensure continued community involvement, there are visits to the habitations covering all the HHs in the habitation. Gram Sabha meetings are held monthly and at least three of the GPWSC members (male and female) are present and actively participate.

WASH Training focuses on households, communities, GPWSC, MVWSC and PRI members. Training sessions include community mobilization, social audit exercise, construction monitoring and surveillance, accounting and bookkeeping, and orientation of GPWSC members in entire habitations for construction supervision. Several people are trained in water quality testing using FTK in each GP.

GPWSC are trained to monitor toilet construction and WASH activities. Both the community and GPWSC are aware of usage, operation and maintenance of toilets. Meetings arranged with community and GPWSC outline the importance of WASH. The goal is to trigger behavioural and attitudinal changes among the target audience. Issues addressed include water supply, water quality, construction and use of toilets, environmental sanitation, personal hygiene, hand washing, etc. A Social Audit Committee is selected and trained in each GP, and regular social audits and meetings are held.

Ganga is a well-known organization with a thirteen year proven record of success in the areas of Environmental Awareness, Education, Water Conservation, Capacity Building and Community Enhancement. We work closely with community and project partners to ensure cohesion between the interests of the end users and those of the suppliers.

We pride ourselves on our infectious positive attitude, our eagerness to participate and include others in something beneficial, and our ability to generate a rapport with local people. The project begins and ends with the beneficiaries. Members of the villages and habitations are orientated towards viewing the problem realistically and embracing the proposed solution with a sense of ownership.

Suitable Sanitation for Schools

Further it is also revealed that There is still need of developing child-friendly, gender & disabled friendly sanitation & hygine in schools. It is a matter of urgency. The study found that no schools currently come up to standard of SSHE programme. Majority of schools have no sanitation facilities, or dysfunctional sanitation facilities specially government schools. It is necessary to develop a omprehensive campaign for schools which can improve condition of schools. So, there is a huge gap between the current status and the envisioned outcomes of the SSHE. Majority of schools i.e. over one third (38%) of school have only two toilets. 9.3 % of the schools surveyed, did not have access to a latrine facility. 25 % of schools have only one toilet. Surveyed school latrines did not adequately address gender or disabled needs of pupils. Total number of latrines available across surveyed schools was insufficient. The average ratio of student-to-drop hole was 145:1. Large number of toilets (45 %) was not in good condition. In Majority of school maintenance & repairing is problem. It has included visible excreta on floor/seats, bad smell etc. Study also finds open defecation by school children. Reasons are: insufficient number of toilets & smells from toilets. Urinals are rarely seen in surveyed schools. 30 % of schools do not have hand washing facilities while 32 % are dependent on hand pumps which is also used for drinking water. Interaction from students and principal suggest that the overwhelming majority of surveyed schools do not have adequate facilities in place for schoolgirls to effectively manage their menses.

Situational Analysis Of Sanitation Facilities Among Urban Slums and Schools

To identify the quantum of the problem of availability of safe drinking water and sanitation facilities, Ganga Santhan surveyed 2500 families of 15 urban slum localities and 25 junior high schools of Lucknow and found that Majority of the people get water for less than one hour daily. People know that the water is unsafe to drink still they drink because they are unaware of purification methods. 42% people face scarcity of water during May month whereas 36% people face scarcity during June month rest 22% face the same during July & August. 63% people are defecating openly around nallah or railway land and 73% people throw the waste openly on the road side whereas only 7-8% people hand it over to the municipal worker. A few people use to burn it also. Out of the total waste dumped around 50% waste is dumped around public water source and 89% people do not use any dustbins to keep the waste properly. Further it is also revealed that There is still need of developing child-friendly, gender & disabled friendly sanitation & hygine in schools. It is a matter of urgency. The study found that no schools currently come up to standard of SSHE programme. Majority of schools have no sanitation facilities, or dysfunctional sanitation facilities specially government schools. It is necessary to develop a comprehensive campaign for schools which can improve condition of schools. So, there is a huge gap between the current status and the envisioned outcomes of the SSHE. Majority of schools i.e. over one third (38%) of school have only two toilets. 9.3 % of the schools surveyed, did not have access to a latrine facility. 25 % of schools have only one toilet. Surveyed school latrines did not adequately address gender or disabled needs of pupils. Total number of latrines available across surveyed schools was insufficient. The average ratio of student-to-drop hole was 145:1. Large number of toilets (45 %) was not in good condition. In Majority of school maintenance & repairing is problem. It has included visible excreta on floor/seats, bad smell etc. Study also finds open defecation by school children. Reasons are: insufficient number of toilets & smells from toilets. Urinals are rarely seen in surveyed schools. 30 % of schools do not have hand washing facilities while 32 % are dependent on hand pumps which is also used for drinking water. Interaction from students and principal suggest that the overwhelming majority of surveyed schools do not have adequate facilities in place for schoolgirls to effectively manage their menses.

Water, sanitation & hygiene (WASH) approach:

  • Attitude building
  • Behavior change
  • Basic amenities at schools
  • Brainstorming exercises
  • Build-up change in practices
  • Improvement in traditional ways
  • Community way of intervention